Audiobook Civil Law Sales

Law on Sales Audiobook #6 Extinguishment of Sale


Article 1600

Sales are extinguished by the same causes as all other obligations, by those stated in the preceding articles of this Title, and by conventional or legal redemption.

Conventional Redemption

Article 1601

Conventional redemption shall take place when the vendor reserves the right to repurchase the thing sold, with the obligation to comply with the provisions of article 1616 and other stipulations which may have been agreed upon.

Article 1602

The contract shall be presumed to be an equitable mortgage, in any of the following cases:

(1) When the price of a sale with right to repurchase is unusually inadequate;

(2) When the vendor remains in possession as lessee or otherwise;

(3) When upon or after the expiration of the right to repurchase another instrument extending the period of redemption or granting a new period is executed;

(4) When the purchaser retains for himself a part of the purchase price; (5) When the vendor binds himself to pay the taxes on the thing sold;

(6) In any other case where it may be fairly inferred that the real intention of the parties is that the transaction shall secure the payment of a debt or the performance of any other obligation.

In any of the foregoing cases, any money, fruits, or other benefit to be received by the vendee as rent or otherwise shall be considered as interest which shall be subject to the usury laws.

Article 1603

In case of doubt, a contract purporting to be a sale with right to repurchase shall be construed as an equitable mortgage.

Article 1604

The provisions of article 1602 shall also apply to a contract purporting to be an absolute sale.

Article 1605

In the cases referred to in articles 1602 and 1604, the apparent vendor may ask for the reformation of the instrument.

Article 1606

The right referred to in article 1601, in the absence of an express agreement, shall last four years from the date of the contract. Should there be an agreement, the period cannot exceed ten years.

However, the vendor may still exercise the right to repurchase within thirty days from the time final judgment was rendered in a civil action on the basis that the contract was a true sale with right to repurchase.

Article 1607

In case of real property, the consolidation of ownership in the vendee by virtue of the failure of the vendor to comply with the provisions of article 1616 shall not be recorded in the Registry of Property without a judicial order, after the vendor has been duly heard.

Article 1608

The vendor may bring his action against every possessor whose right is derived from the vendee, even if in the second contract no mention should have been made of the right to repurchase, without prejudice to the provisions of the Mortgage Law and the Land Registration Law with respect to third persons.

Article 1609
The vendee is subrogated to the vendor’s rights and actions. Article 1610

The creditors of the vendor cannot make use of the right of redemption against the vendee, until after they have exhausted the property of the vendor.

Article 1611

In a sale with a right to repurchase, the vendee of a part of an undivided immovable who acquires the whole thereof in the case of article 498, may compel the vendor to redeem the whole property, if the latter wishes to make use of the right of redemption.

Article 1612

If several persons, jointly and in the same contract, should sell an undivided immovable with a right of repurchase, none of them may exercise this right for more than his respective share.

The same rule shall apply if the person who sold an immovable alone has left several heirs, in which case each of the latter may only redeem the part which he may have acquired.

Article 1613

In the case of the preceding article, the vendee may demand of all the vendors or co-heirs that they come to an agreement upon the repurchase of the whole thing sold; and should they fail to do so, the vendee cannot be compelled to consent to a partial redemption.

Article 1614

Each one of the co-owners of an undivided immovable who may have sold his share separately, may independently exercise the right of repurchase as regards his own share, and the vendee cannot compel him to redeem the whole property.

Article 1615

If the vendee should leave several heirs, the action for redemption cannot be brought against each of them except for his own share, whether the thing be undivided, or it has been partitioned among them.

But if the inheritance has been divided, and the thing sold has been awarded to one of the heirs, the action for redemption may be instituted against him for the whole.

Article 1616

The vendor cannot avail himself of the right of repurchase without returning to the vendee the price of the sale, and in addition:

(1) The expenses of the contract, and any other legitimate payments made by reason of the sale;

(2) The necessary and useful expenses made on the thing sold.

Article 1617

If at the time of the execution of the sale there should be on the land, visible or growing fruits, there shall be no reimbursement for or prorating of those existing at the time of redemption, if no indemnity was paid by the purchaser when the sale was executed.

Should there have been no fruits at the time of the sale and some exist at the time of redemption, they shall be prorated between the redemptioner and the vendee, giving the latter the part corresponding to the time he possessed the land in the last year, counted from the anniversary of the date of the sale.

Article 1618. The vendor who recovers the thing sold shall receive it free from all charges or mortgages constituted by the vendee, but he shall respect the leases which the latter may have executed in good faith, and in accordance with the custom of the place where the land is situated.

Legal Redemption Article 1619

Legal redemption is the right to be subrogated, upon the same terms and conditions stipulated in the contract, in the place of one who acquires a thing by purchase or dation in payment, or by any other transaction whereby ownership is transmitted by onerous title.

Article 1620

A co-owner of a thing may exercise the right of redemption in case the shares of all the other co-owners or of any of them, are sold to a third person. If the price of the alienation is grossly excessive, the redemptioner shall pay only a reasonable one.

Should two or more co-owners desire to exercise the right of redemption, they may only do so in proportion to the share they may respectively have in the thing owned in common.

Article 1621

The owners of adjoining lands shall also have the right of redemption when a piece of rural land, the area of which does not exceed one hectare, is alienated, unless the grantee does not own any rural land.

This right is not applicable to adjacent lands which are separated by brooks, drains, ravines, roads and other apparent servitudes for the benefit of other estates.

If two or more adjoining owners desire to exercise the right of redemption at the same time, the owner of the adjoining land of smaller area shall be preferred; and should both lands have the same area, the one who first requested the redemption.

Article 1622

Whenever a piece of urban land which is so small and so situated that a major portion thereof cannot be used for any practical purpose within a reasonable time, having been bought merely for speculation, is about to be re-sold, the owner of any adjoining land has a right of pre-emption at a reasonable price.

If the re-sale has been perfected, the owner of the adjoining land shall have a right of redemption, also at a reasonable price.

When two or more owners of adjoining lands wish to exercise the right of pre-emption or redemption, the owner whose intended use of the land in question appears best justified shall be preferred.

Article 1623

The right of legal pre-emption or redemption shall not be exercised except within thirty days from the notice in writing by the prospective vendor, or by the vendor, as the case may be.

The deed of sale shall not be recorded in the Registry of Property, unless accompanied by an affidavit of the vendor that he has given written notice thereof to all possible redemptioners.

The right of redemption of co-owners excludes that of adjoining owners.

Audiobook Civil Law Sales

Law on Sales Audiobook #7 Assignment of Credits and Other Incorporeal Rights


Article 1624

An assignment of creditors and other incorporeal rights shall be perfected in accordance with the provisions of article 1475.

Article 1625

An assignment of a credit, right or action shall produce no effect as against third persons, unless it appears in a public instrument, or the instrument is recorded in the Registry of Property in case the assignment involves real property.

Article 1626

The debtor who, before having knowledge of the assignment, pays his creditor shall be released from the obligation.

Article 1627

The assignment of a credit includes all the accessory rights, such as a guaranty, mortgage, pledge or preference.

Article 1628

The vendor in good faith shall be responsible for the existence and legality of the credit at the time of the sale, unless it should have been sold as doubtful; but not for the solvency of the debtor, unless it has been so expressly stipulated or unless the insolvency was prior to the sale and of common knowledge.

Even in these cases he shall only be liable for the price received and for the expenses specified in No. 1 of article 1616.

The vendor in bad faith shall always be answerable for the payment of all expenses, and for damages.

Article 1629

In case the assignor in good faith should have made himself responsible for the solvency of the debtor, and the contracting parties should not have agreed upon the duration of the liability, it shall last for one year only, from the time of the assignment if the period had already expired.

If the credit should be payable within a term or period which has not yet expired, the liability shall cease one year after the maturity.

Article 1630

One who sells an inheritance without enumerating the things of which it is composed, shall only be answerable for his character as an heir.

Article 1631

One who sells for a lump sum the whole of certain rights, rents, or products, shall comply by answering for the legitimacy of the whole in general; but he shall not be obliged to warrant each of the various parts of which it may be composed, except in the case of eviction from the whole or the part of greater value.

Article 1632

Should the vendor have profited by some of the fruits or received anything from the inheritance sold, he shall pay the vendee thereof, if the contrary has not been stipulated.

Article 1633

The vendee shall, on his part, reimburse the vendor for all that the latter may have paid for the debts of and charges on the estate and satisfy the credits he may have against the same, unless there is an agreement to the contrary.

Article 1634

When a credit or other incorporeal right in litigation is sold, the debtor shall have a right to extinguish it by reimbursing the assignee for the price the latter paid therefor, the judicial costs incurred by him, and the interest on the price from the day on which the same was paid.

A credit or other incorporeal right shall be considered in litigation from the time the complaint concerning the same is answered. The debtor may exercise his right within thirty days from the date the assignee demands payment from him.

Article 1635

From the provisions of the preceding article shall be excepted the assignments or sales made:

(1) To a co-heir or co-owner of the right assigned;

(2) To a creditor in payment of his credit;

(3) To the possessor of a tenement or piece of land which is subject to the right in litigation assigned.


Article 1636

In the preceding articles in this Title governing the sale of goods, unless the context or subject matter otherwise requires:

(1) “Document of title to goods” includes any bill of lading, dock warrant, “quedan,” or warehouse receipt or order for the delivery of goods, or any other document used in the ordinary course of business in the sale or transfer of goods, as proof of the possession or control of the goods, or authorizing or purporting to authorize the possessor of the document to transfer or receive, either by indorsement or by delivery, goods represented by such document.

“Goods” includes all chattels personal but not things in action or money of legal tender in the Philippines. The term includes growing fruits or crops.

“Order” relating to documents of title means an order by endorsement on the documents.

“Quality of goods” includes their state or condition.

“Specific goods” means goods identified and agreed upon at the time a contract of sale is made.

An antecedent or pre-existing claim, whether for money or not, constitutes “value” where goods or documents of title are taken either in satisfaction thereof or as security therefor.

(2) A person is insolvent within the meaning of this Title who either has ceased to pay his debts in the ordinary course of business or cannot pay his debts as they become due, whether insolvency proceedings have been commenced or not.

(3) Goods are in a “deliverable state” within the meaning of this Title when they are in such a state that the buyer would, under the contract, be bound to take delivery of them.

Article 1637

The provisions of this Title are subject to the rules laid down by the Mortgage Law and the Land Registration Law with regard to immovable property.