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Audiobook Civil Law Sales

Law on Sales Audiobook #6 Extinguishment of Sale

CHAPTER 7 EXTINGUISHMENT OF SALE

Article 1600

Sales are extinguished by the same causes as all other obligations, by those stated in the preceding articles of this Title, and by conventional or legal redemption.

SECTION 1
Conventional Redemption

Article 1601

Conventional redemption shall take place when the vendor reserves the right to repurchase the thing sold, with the obligation to comply with the provisions of article 1616 and other stipulations which may have been agreed upon.

Article 1602

The contract shall be presumed to be an equitable mortgage, in any of the following cases:

(1) When the price of a sale with right to repurchase is unusually inadequate;

(2) When the vendor remains in possession as lessee or otherwise;

(3) When upon or after the expiration of the right to repurchase another instrument extending the period of redemption or granting a new period is executed;

(4) When the purchaser retains for himself a part of the purchase price; (5) When the vendor binds himself to pay the taxes on the thing sold;

(6) In any other case where it may be fairly inferred that the real intention of the parties is that the transaction shall secure the payment of a debt or the performance of any other obligation.

In any of the foregoing cases, any money, fruits, or other benefit to be received by the vendee as rent or otherwise shall be considered as interest which shall be subject to the usury laws.

Article 1603

In case of doubt, a contract purporting to be a sale with right to repurchase shall be construed as an equitable mortgage.

Article 1604

The provisions of article 1602 shall also apply to a contract purporting to be an absolute sale.

Article 1605

In the cases referred to in articles 1602 and 1604, the apparent vendor may ask for the reformation of the instrument.

Article 1606

The right referred to in article 1601, in the absence of an express agreement, shall last four years from the date of the contract. Should there be an agreement, the period cannot exceed ten years.

However, the vendor may still exercise the right to repurchase within thirty days from the time final judgment was rendered in a civil action on the basis that the contract was a true sale with right to repurchase.

Article 1607

In case of real property, the consolidation of ownership in the vendee by virtue of the failure of the vendor to comply with the provisions of article 1616 shall not be recorded in the Registry of Property without a judicial order, after the vendor has been duly heard.

Article 1608

The vendor may bring his action against every possessor whose right is derived from the vendee, even if in the second contract no mention should have been made of the right to repurchase, without prejudice to the provisions of the Mortgage Law and the Land Registration Law with respect to third persons.

Article 1609
The vendee is subrogated to the vendor’s rights and actions. Article 1610

The creditors of the vendor cannot make use of the right of redemption against the vendee, until after they have exhausted the property of the vendor.

Article 1611

In a sale with a right to repurchase, the vendee of a part of an undivided immovable who acquires the whole thereof in the case of article 498, may compel the vendor to redeem the whole property, if the latter wishes to make use of the right of redemption.

Article 1612

If several persons, jointly and in the same contract, should sell an undivided immovable with a right of repurchase, none of them may exercise this right for more than his respective share.

The same rule shall apply if the person who sold an immovable alone has left several heirs, in which case each of the latter may only redeem the part which he may have acquired.

Article 1613

In the case of the preceding article, the vendee may demand of all the vendors or co-heirs that they come to an agreement upon the repurchase of the whole thing sold; and should they fail to do so, the vendee cannot be compelled to consent to a partial redemption.

Article 1614

Each one of the co-owners of an undivided immovable who may have sold his share separately, may independently exercise the right of repurchase as regards his own share, and the vendee cannot compel him to redeem the whole property.

Article 1615

If the vendee should leave several heirs, the action for redemption cannot be brought against each of them except for his own share, whether the thing be undivided, or it has been partitioned among them.

But if the inheritance has been divided, and the thing sold has been awarded to one of the heirs, the action for redemption may be instituted against him for the whole.

Article 1616

The vendor cannot avail himself of the right of repurchase without returning to the vendee the price of the sale, and in addition:

(1) The expenses of the contract, and any other legitimate payments made by reason of the sale;

(2) The necessary and useful expenses made on the thing sold.

Article 1617

If at the time of the execution of the sale there should be on the land, visible or growing fruits, there shall be no reimbursement for or prorating of those existing at the time of redemption, if no indemnity was paid by the purchaser when the sale was executed.

Should there have been no fruits at the time of the sale and some exist at the time of redemption, they shall be prorated between the redemptioner and the vendee, giving the latter the part corresponding to the time he possessed the land in the last year, counted from the anniversary of the date of the sale.

Article 1618. The vendor who recovers the thing sold shall receive it free from all charges or mortgages constituted by the vendee, but he shall respect the leases which the latter may have executed in good faith, and in accordance with the custom of the place where the land is situated.

SECTION 2
Legal Redemption Article 1619

Legal redemption is the right to be subrogated, upon the same terms and conditions stipulated in the contract, in the place of one who acquires a thing by purchase or dation in payment, or by any other transaction whereby ownership is transmitted by onerous title.

Article 1620

A co-owner of a thing may exercise the right of redemption in case the shares of all the other co-owners or of any of them, are sold to a third person. If the price of the alienation is grossly excessive, the redemptioner shall pay only a reasonable one.

Should two or more co-owners desire to exercise the right of redemption, they may only do so in proportion to the share they may respectively have in the thing owned in common.

Article 1621

The owners of adjoining lands shall also have the right of redemption when a piece of rural land, the area of which does not exceed one hectare, is alienated, unless the grantee does not own any rural land.

This right is not applicable to adjacent lands which are separated by brooks, drains, ravines, roads and other apparent servitudes for the benefit of other estates.

If two or more adjoining owners desire to exercise the right of redemption at the same time, the owner of the adjoining land of smaller area shall be preferred; and should both lands have the same area, the one who first requested the redemption.

Article 1622

Whenever a piece of urban land which is so small and so situated that a major portion thereof cannot be used for any practical purpose within a reasonable time, having been bought merely for speculation, is about to be re-sold, the owner of any adjoining land has a right of pre-emption at a reasonable price.

If the re-sale has been perfected, the owner of the adjoining land shall have a right of redemption, also at a reasonable price.

When two or more owners of adjoining lands wish to exercise the right of pre-emption or redemption, the owner whose intended use of the land in question appears best justified shall be preferred.

Article 1623

The right of legal pre-emption or redemption shall not be exercised except within thirty days from the notice in writing by the prospective vendor, or by the vendor, as the case may be.

The deed of sale shall not be recorded in the Registry of Property, unless accompanied by an affidavit of the vendor that he has given written notice thereof to all possible redemptioners.

The right of redemption of co-owners excludes that of adjoining owners.

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Audiobook Civil Law Sales

Law on Sales Audiobook #7 Assignment of Credits and Other Incorporeal Rights

CHAPTER 8
ASSIGNMENT OF CREDITS AND OTHER INCORPOREAL RIGHTS

Article 1624

An assignment of creditors and other incorporeal rights shall be perfected in accordance with the provisions of article 1475.

Article 1625

An assignment of a credit, right or action shall produce no effect as against third persons, unless it appears in a public instrument, or the instrument is recorded in the Registry of Property in case the assignment involves real property.

Article 1626

The debtor who, before having knowledge of the assignment, pays his creditor shall be released from the obligation.

Article 1627

The assignment of a credit includes all the accessory rights, such as a guaranty, mortgage, pledge or preference.

Article 1628

The vendor in good faith shall be responsible for the existence and legality of the credit at the time of the sale, unless it should have been sold as doubtful; but not for the solvency of the debtor, unless it has been so expressly stipulated or unless the insolvency was prior to the sale and of common knowledge.

Even in these cases he shall only be liable for the price received and for the expenses specified in No. 1 of article 1616.

The vendor in bad faith shall always be answerable for the payment of all expenses, and for damages.

Article 1629

In case the assignor in good faith should have made himself responsible for the solvency of the debtor, and the contracting parties should not have agreed upon the duration of the liability, it shall last for one year only, from the time of the assignment if the period had already expired.

If the credit should be payable within a term or period which has not yet expired, the liability shall cease one year after the maturity.

Article 1630

One who sells an inheritance without enumerating the things of which it is composed, shall only be answerable for his character as an heir.

Article 1631

One who sells for a lump sum the whole of certain rights, rents, or products, shall comply by answering for the legitimacy of the whole in general; but he shall not be obliged to warrant each of the various parts of which it may be composed, except in the case of eviction from the whole or the part of greater value.

Article 1632

Should the vendor have profited by some of the fruits or received anything from the inheritance sold, he shall pay the vendee thereof, if the contrary has not been stipulated.

Article 1633

The vendee shall, on his part, reimburse the vendor for all that the latter may have paid for the debts of and charges on the estate and satisfy the credits he may have against the same, unless there is an agreement to the contrary.

Article 1634

When a credit or other incorporeal right in litigation is sold, the debtor shall have a right to extinguish it by reimbursing the assignee for the price the latter paid therefor, the judicial costs incurred by him, and the interest on the price from the day on which the same was paid.

A credit or other incorporeal right shall be considered in litigation from the time the complaint concerning the same is answered. The debtor may exercise his right within thirty days from the date the assignee demands payment from him.

Article 1635

From the provisions of the preceding article shall be excepted the assignments or sales made:

(1) To a co-heir or co-owner of the right assigned;

(2) To a creditor in payment of his credit;

(3) To the possessor of a tenement or piece of land which is subject to the right in litigation assigned.

CHAPTER 9
GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1636

In the preceding articles in this Title governing the sale of goods, unless the context or subject matter otherwise requires:

(1) “Document of title to goods” includes any bill of lading, dock warrant, “quedan,” or warehouse receipt or order for the delivery of goods, or any other document used in the ordinary course of business in the sale or transfer of goods, as proof of the possession or control of the goods, or authorizing or purporting to authorize the possessor of the document to transfer or receive, either by indorsement or by delivery, goods represented by such document.

“Goods” includes all chattels personal but not things in action or money of legal tender in the Philippines. The term includes growing fruits or crops.

“Order” relating to documents of title means an order by endorsement on the documents.

“Quality of goods” includes their state or condition.

“Specific goods” means goods identified and agreed upon at the time a contract of sale is made.

An antecedent or pre-existing claim, whether for money or not, constitutes “value” where goods or documents of title are taken either in satisfaction thereof or as security therefor.

(2) A person is insolvent within the meaning of this Title who either has ceased to pay his debts in the ordinary course of business or cannot pay his debts as they become due, whether insolvency proceedings have been commenced or not.

(3) Goods are in a “deliverable state” within the meaning of this Title when they are in such a state that the buyer would, under the contract, be bound to take delivery of them.

Article 1637

The provisions of this Title are subject to the rules laid down by the Mortgage Law and the Land Registration Law with regard to immovable property.

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Audiobook Civil Law Sales

Law on Sales Audiobook #5 Actions for Breach of Contract of Sales of Goods Civil Law Review

New Civil Code of the Philippines
Title VI Sales
Chapter 6 Actions for Breach of Contract of Sales of Goods Articles 1594 to 1599

Article 1594

Actions for breach of the contract of sale of goods shall be governed particularly by the provisions of this Chapter, and as to matters not specifically provided for herein, by other applicable provisions of this Title.

Article 1595

Where, under a contract of sale, the ownership of the goods has passed to the buyer and he wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay for the goods according to the terms of the contract of sale, the seller may maintain an action against him for the price of the goods.

Where, under a contract of sale, the price is payable on a certain day, irrespective of delivery or of transfer of title and the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay such price, the seller may maintain an action for the price although the ownership in the goods has not passed.

But it shall be a defense to such an action that the seller at any time before the judgment in such action has manifested an inability to perform the contract of sale on his part or an intention not to perform it.

Although the ownership in the goods has not passed, if they cannot readily be resold for a reasonable price, and if the provisions of article 1596, fourth paragraph, are not applicable, the seller may offer to deliver the goods to the buyer, and, if the buyer refuses to receive them, may notify the buyer that the goods are thereafter held by the seller as bailee for the buyer.

Thereafter the seller may treat the goods as the buyer’s and may maintain an action for the price.

Article 1596

Where the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to accept and pay for the goods, the seller may maintain an action against him for damages for nonacceptance.

The measure of damages is the estimated loss directly and naturally resulting in the ordinary course of events from the buyer’s breach of contract.

Where there is an available market for the goods in question, the measure of damages is, in the absence of special circumstances showing proximate damage of a different amount, the difference between the contract price and the market or current price at the time or times when

the goods ought to have been accepted, or, if no time was fixed for acceptance, then at the time of the refusal to accept.

If, while labor or expense of material amount is necessary on the part of the seller to enable him to fulfill his obligations under the contract of sale, the buyer repudiates the contract or notifies the seller to proceed no further therewith, the buyer shall be liable to the seller for labor performed or expenses made before receiving notice of the buyer’s repudiation or countermand.

The profit the seller would have made if the contract or the sale had been fully performed shall be considered in awarding the damages.

Article 1597

Where the goods have not been delivered to the buyer, and the buyer has repudiated the contract of sale, or has manifested his inability to perform his obligations thereunder, or has committed a breach thereof, the seller may totally rescind the contract of sale by giving notice of his election so to do to the buyer.

Article 1598

Where the seller has broken a contract to deliver specific or ascertained goods, a court may, on the application of the buyer, direct that the contract shall be performed specifically, without giving the seller the option of retaining the goods on payment of damages. The judgment or decree may be unconditional, or upon such terms and conditions as to damages, payment of the price and otherwise, as the court may deem just.

Article 1599
Where there is a breach of warranty by the seller, the buyer may, at his election:

(1) Accept or keep the goods and set up against the seller, the breach of warranty by way of recoupment in diminution or extinction of the price;

(2) Accept or keep the goods and maintain an action against the seller for damages for the breach of warranty;

(3) Refuse to accept the goods, and maintain an action against the seller for damages for the breach of warranty;

(4) Rescind the contract of sale and refuse to receive the goods or if the goods have already been received, return them or offer to return them to the seller and recover the price or any part thereof which has been paid.

When the buyer has claimed and been granted a remedy in anyone of these ways, no other remedy can thereafter be granted, without prejudice to the provisions of the second paragraph of article 1191.

Where the goods have been delivered to the buyer, he cannot rescind the sale if he knew of the breach of warranty when he accepted the goods without protest, or if he fails to notify the seller within a reasonable time of the election to rescind, or if he fails to return or to offer to return the goods to the seller in substantially as good condition as they were in at the time the ownership was transferred to the buyer.

But if deterioration or injury of the goods is due to the breach or warranty, such deterioration or injury shall not prevent the buyer from returning or offering to return the goods to the seller and rescinding the sale.

Where the buyer is entitled to rescind the sale and elects to do so, he shall cease to be liable for the price upon returning or offering to return the goods.

If the price or any part thereof has already been paid, the seller shall be liable to repay so much thereof as has been paid, concurrently with the return of the goods, or immediately after an offer to return the goods in exchange for repayment of the price.

Where the buyer is entitled to rescind the sale and elects to do so, if the seller refuses to accept an offer of the buyer to return the goods, the buyer shall thereafter be deemed to hold the goods as bailee for the seller, but subject to a lien to secure the payment of any portion of the price which has been paid, and with the remedies for the enforcement of such lien allowed to an unpaid seller by article 1526.

(5) In the case of breach of warranty of quality, such loss, in the absence of special circumstances showing proximate damage of a greater amount, is the difference between the value of the goods at the time of delivery to the buyer and the value they would have had if they had answered to the warranty.

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Audiobook Civil Law Sales

Law on Sales Audiobook #4 Obligations of the Vendee

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New Civil Code of the Philippines
Title VI Sales
Chapter 5 Obligations of the Vendee
Articles 1582 to 1593

CHAPTER 5
OBLIGATIONS OF THE VENDEE

Article 1582

The vendee is bound to accept delivery and to pay the price of the thing sold at the time and place stipulated in the contract.

If the time and place should not have been stipulated, the payment must be made at the time and place of the delivery of the thing sold.

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Audiobook Civil Law Sales

Law on Sales Audiobook #3 Conditions and Warranties

New Civil Code of the Philippines
Title VI Sales
Chapter 4 Obligations of the Vendor
Section 3 Conditions and Warranties

SECTION 3

CONDITIONS AND WARRANTIES

Article 1545

Where the obligation of either party to a contract of sale is subject to any condition which is not performed, such party may refuse to proceed with the contract or he may waive performance of the condition. 

If the other party has promised that the condition should happen or be performed, such first mentioned party may also treat the nonperformance of the condition as a breach of warranty.

Where the ownership in the thing has not passed, the buyer may treat the fulfillment by the seller of his obligation to deliver the same as described and as warranted expressly or by implication in the contract of sale as a condition of the obligation of the buyer to perform his promise to accept and pay for the thing.

Article 1546

Any affirmation of fact or any promise by the seller relating to the thing is an express warranty if the natural tendency of such affirmation or promise is to induce the buyer to purchase the same, and if the buyer purchases the thing relying thereon.

No affirmation of the value of the thing, nor any statement purporting to be a statement of the seller’s opinion only, shall be construed as a warranty, unless the seller made such affirmation or statement as an expert and it was relied upon by the buyer.

Article 1547

In a contract of sale, unless a contrary intention appears, there is:

(1) An implied warranty on the part of the seller that he has a right to sell the thing at the time when the ownership is to pass, and that the buyer shall from that time have and enjoy the legal and peaceful possession of the thing;

(2) An implied warranty that the thing shall be free from any hidden faults or defects, or any charge or encumbrance not declared or known to the buyer.

This article shall not, however, be held to render liable a sheriff, auctioneer, mortgagee, pledgee, or other person professing to sell by virtue of authority in fact or law, for the sale of a thing in which a third person has a legal or equitable interest. 

SUBSECTION 1

WARRANTY IN CASE OF EVICTION

Article 1548

Eviction shall take place whenever by a final judgment based on a right prior to the sale or an act imputable to the vendor, the vendee is deprived of the whole or of a part of the thing purchased.

The vendor shall answer for the eviction even though nothing has been said in the contract on the subject.

The contracting parties, however, may increase, diminish, or suppress this legal obligation of the vendor.

Article 1549

The vendee need not appeal from the decision in order that the vendor may become liable for eviction.

Article 1550

When adverse possession had been commenced before the sale but the prescriptive period is completed after the transfer, the vendor shall not be liable for eviction.

Article 1551

If the property is sold for nonpayment of taxes due and not made known to the vendee before the sale, the vendor is liable for eviction.

Article 1552

The judgment debtor is also responsible for eviction in judicial sales, unless it is otherwise decreed in the judgment.

Article 1553

Any stipulation exempting the vendor from the obligation to answer for eviction shall be void, if he acted in bad faith. 

Article 1554

If the vendee has renounced the right to warranty in case of eviction, and eviction should take place, the vendor shall only pay the value which the thing sold had at the time of the eviction. 

Should the vendee have made the waiver with knowledge of the risks of eviction and assumed its consequences, the vendor shall not be liable. 

Article 1555

When the warranty has been agreed upon or nothing has been stipulated on this point, in case eviction occurs, the vendee shall have the right to demand of the vendor:

(1) The return of the value which the thing sold had at the time of the eviction, be it greater or less than the price of the sale;

(2) The income or fruits, if he has been ordered to deliver them to the party who won the suit against him;

(3) The costs of the suit which caused the eviction, and, in a proper case, those of the suit brought against the vendor for the warranty;

(4) The expenses of the contract, if the vendee has paid them;

(5) The damages and interests, and ornamental expenses, if the sale was made in bad faith. 

Article 1556

Should the vendee lose, by reason of the eviction, a part of the thing sold of such importance, in relation to the whole, that he would not have bought it without said part, he may demand the rescission of the contract; but with the obligation to return the thing without other encumbrances that those which it had when he acquired it.

He may exercise this right of action, instead of enforcing the vendor’s liability for eviction.

The same rule shall be observed when two or more things have been jointly sold for a lump sum, or for a separate price for each of them, if it should clearly appear that the vendee would not have purchased one without the other. 

Article 1557

The warranty cannot be enforced until a final judgment has been rendered, whereby the vendee loses the thing acquired or a part thereof. 

Article 1558

The vendor shall not be obliged to make good the proper warranty, unless he is summoned in the suit for eviction at the instance of the vendee. 

Article 1559

The defendant vendee shall ask, within the time fixed in the Rules of Court for answering the complaint, that the vendor be made a co-defendant. 

Article 1560

If the immovable sold should be encumbered with any non-apparent burden or servitude, not mentioned in the agreement, of such a nature that it must be presumed that the vendee would not have acquired it had he been aware thereof, he may ask for the rescission of the contract, unless he should prefer the appropriate indemnity.

Neither right can be exercised if the non-apparent burden or servitude is recorded in the Registry of Property, unless there is an express warranty that the thing is free from all burdens and encumbrances.

Within one year, to be computed from the execution of the deed, the vendee may bring the action for rescission, or sue for damages.

One year having elapsed, he may only bring an action for damages within an equal period, to be counted from the date on which he discovered the burden or servitude. 

SUBSECTION 2

WARRANTY AGAINST HIDDEN DEFECTS OF OR ENCUMBRANCES UPON THE THING SOLD

Article 1561

The vendor shall be responsible for warranty against the hidden defects which the thing sold may have, should they render it unfit for the use for which it is intended, or should they diminish its fitness for such use to such an extent that, had the vendee been aware thereof, he would not have acquired it or would have given a lower price for it;

…but said vendor shall not be answerable for patent defects or those which may be visible, or for those which are not visible if the vendee is an expert who, by reason of his trade or profession, should have known them. 

Article 1562

In a sale of goods, there is an implied warranty or condition as to the quality or fitness of the goods, as follows:

(1) Where the buyer, expressly or by implication, makes known to the seller the particular purpose for which the goods are acquired, and it appears that the buyer relies on the seller’s skill or judgment (whether he be the grower or manufacturer or not), there is an implied warranty that the goods shall be reasonably fit for such purpose;

(2) Where the goods are brought by description from a seller who deals in goods of that description (whether he be the grower or manufacturer or not), there is an implied warranty that the goods shall be of merchantable quality. 

Article 1563

In the case of contract of sale of a specified article under its patent or other trade name, there is no warranty as to its fitness for any particular purpose, unless there is a stipulation to the contrary. 

Article 1564

An implied warranty or condition as to the quality or fitness for a particular purpose may be annexed by the usage of trade. 

Article 1565

In the case of a contract of sale by sample, if the seller is a dealer in goods of that kind, there is an implied warranty that the goods shall be free from any defect rendering them unmerchantable which would not be apparent on reasonable examination of the sample.

Article 1566

The vendor is responsible to the vendee for any hidden faults or defects in the thing sold, even though he was not aware thereof.

This provision shall not apply if the contrary has been stipulated, and the vendor was not aware of the hidden faults or defects in the thing sold.

Article 1567

In the cases of articles 1561, 1562, 1564, 1565 and 1566, the vendee may elect between withdrawing from the contract and demanding a proportionate reduction of the price, with damages in either case.

Article 1568

If the thing sold should be lost in consequence of the hidden faults, and the vendor was aware of them, he shall bear the loss, and shall be obliged to return the price and refund the expenses of the contract, with damages.

If he was not aware of them, he shall only return the price and interest thereon, and reimburse the expenses of the contract which the vendee might have paid.

Article 1569

If the thing sold had any hidden fault at the time of the sale, and should thereafter be lost by a fortuitous event or through the fault of the vendee, the latter may demand of the vendor the price which he paid, less the value which the thing had when it was lost.

If the vendor acted in bad faith, he shall pay damages to the vendee.

Article 1570

The preceding articles of this Subsection shall be applicable to judicial sales, except that the judgment debtor shall not be liable for damages.

Article 1571

Actions arising from the provisions of the preceding ten articles shall be barred after six months, from the delivery of the thing sold.

Article 1572

If two or more animals are sold together, whether for a lump sum or for a separate price for each of them, the redhibitory defect of one shall only give rise to its redhibition, and not that of the others; unless it should appear that the vendee would not have purchased the sound animal or animals without the defective one.

The latter case shall be presumed when a team, yoke, pair, or set is bought, even if a separate price has been fixed for each one of the animals composing the same.

Article 1573

The provisions of the preceding article with respect to the sale of animals shall in like manner be applicable to the sale of other things.

Article 1574

There is no warranty against hidden defects of animals sold at fairs or at public auctions, or of live stock sold as condemned.

Article 1575

The sale of animals suffering from contagious diseases shall be void. A contract of sale of animals shall also be void if the use or service for which they are acquired has been stated in the contract, and they are found to be unfit therefor.

Article 1576

If the hidden defect of animals, even in case a professional inspection has been made, should be of such a nature that expert knowledge is not sufficient to discover it, the defect shall be considered as redhibitory.

But if the veterinarian, through ignorance or bad faith should fail to discover or disclose it, he shall be liable for damages.

Article 1577

The redhibitory action, based on the faults or defects of animals, must be brought within forty days from the date of their delivery to the vendee.

This action can only be exercised with respect to faults and defects which are determined by law or by local customs. 

Article 1578

If the animal should die within three days after its purchase, the vendor shall be liable if the disease which cause the death existed at the time of the contract.

Article 1579

If the sale be rescinded, the animal shall be returned in the condition in which it was sold and delivered, the vendee being answerable for any injury due to his negligence, and not arising from the redhibitory fault or defect. 

Article 1580

In the sale of animals with redhibitory defects, the vendee shall also enjoy the right mentioned in article 1567; but he must make use thereof within the same period which has been fixed for the exercise of the redhibitory action. 

Article 1581

The form of sale of large cattle shall be governed by special laws.

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Audiobook Civil Law Sales

Law on Sales Audiobook #2 Obligations of the Vendor General Provisions, Delivery of the Thing Sold



New Civil Code of the Philippines
Title VI Sales
Chapter 4 Obligations of the Vendor
Section 1 General Provisions
Section 2 Delivery of the Thing Sold

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Civil Law Audiobook Sales

Law on Sales Audiobook #1 Nature and Form, Capacity to Buy & Sell, Effects When Thing Sold is Lost

Civil Code of the Philippines
Title VI Sales
Articles 1458 to 1494

Chapter 1 Nature and Form of the Contract
Chapter 2 Capacity to Buy or Sell
Chapter 3 Effects of the Contract When the Thing Sold Has Been Lost